For example, auditory and visual contact) of male Goliath frogs (CotlTaua golia/h a species in which males in the wild arc highly terriwrial (A.
Without an opportunity to escape, subordinate individuals in both these categories risk rganizaooll can in social of amphibians and resp ns nvironment call j opardize urvival Page 4 ENRICHMENT FOR AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 207 immediate or protracted death.
Michael Hutchins (editors Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, Washington, DC.
At one extreme, th reptil to elevated d n ides in downloadable the captive of conspecifics.
Finally, because the maturation and socialization of captive- reared amphibians and reptiles may require some form of emichrnent (see Miller et aI., Chapter 7, this volume we emphasize the pivotal role of enrichment in captive-breeding programs that have repatriation as a goal (i.e., repopulation of extirpated wild populations as per Reinert 1991; see also Nielsen.
Worksheets - Reptiles, free and safe download. Worksheets Bluefish Graphics more programs (18) Close. Worksheets - Reptiles is fully compatible with: Windows XP;.
Limited understanding of most variables one might measure on captive am- phibians and reptiles requires that work in this area be viewed as experimental.
Despite this rapid conceptual growth, environmental enrichment remains an approach applied largely to mammals (Warwick 1990a; Shepherdson 1992; King 1993 other groups, such as amphib- ians and reptiles, are rarely addressed.
Unfortunately, tlus approach often entirely ignored the social environment of captive amphibians and reptiles, probably because amphibians and reptiles exhibit few of the observable indica- tions of socially induced stress found among mammals.
Subordinates also may fail to reproduce (Evans and Quaranta 1951 however, if this is not physiologically harmful, it could actually be a desirable method to control reproduction in captive populations.
In other reviews, amphibians and reptiles either are not mentioned (duBois 1991; Griede 1992; Shepherdson 1991a; Tudge 1991) or appear only briefly in passing discussion (Markowitz 1982).
Nascent efforts have been made to address the psychophysiological problems of reptiles in captivity (Bels 1989; Warwick 1990a,b; Burghardt and Layne 1995 but these are the salient exceptions.
Reptiles and Amphibians Reptiles. The world s 8,240 species of reptiles inhabit every continent except Antarctica. Reptiles include turtles, snakes, crocodiles, and.
Captive amphibians and reptiles often establish dominance hierarchies (frogs Boice and Witter 1969;Boice and Williams 1971; toads Uoice and Boice 1970J; salamanders fKeen and Reed 1985; lizards Colnaghi 1971; Stamps 1977; Alberts 1994J; snakes fBarker et al.
Growth rates were depressed and plasma corticosteroid levels were clevated in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) raised at high densities (Elsey et al.
Social systems range from species possessing well-defined territories (e.g., many lizards; Stamps 1977 in which obvious spatial segregation exists, to those that lack resource-defense behavior (e.g., some frogs; Wells 1977a among which spatial organization downloads can vary but individuals not segregated.
BEYOND MAMMALS Environmental Enrichment for Amphibians and Reptiles During the past decade, increased concern for the psychological as wel1 as the physical wel1-being of animals has al10wed environmental enrichment to mature as a focal concept in their captive management (Shepherdson 1989, 1991a,b, 1992).
Alternatively, manipulations that cncourage reproduction among subordinates may have the advantage of increas- ing genetic variability in captive populations.
Elevated densities in the captive environment can frequently result in less extreme responses.
Although cannibalism has been historically viewed as an aberrant behavior, growing evidence indicates that it is a common d e n i t y - d e p c n d e n t regulatory mechanism in manypopulations (Simon Chabreck 1993).